There are 3 basic notes on a djembe. There are usually refered to as bass, tone and slap.
Here's a video in which Master djembefola Mamady Keita demonstrates correct technique
The 3 basic notes we are looking at here are all open. That is to say that after you have hit the skin, your hand should bounce from the drum skin, allowing the skin to ring. Keeping your hand in contact with the skin will make different sounds and although they are valid you should re-visit them once you have mastered the concept behind the first 3 basic ones.
The bass is played in the centre of the djembe. Some people prefer each hand keep slightly more toward it’s own side of the centre line down the middle of the drum. The bass is often play more torwards the rim of the djembe. The sound is not as deep, but the hand has less distance to travel and therefore is less taxing at speed.
The tone is played with the underside of your fingers. The joint where your fingers join your hand should be around the rim of the drum. All of the fingers should hit the skin flat at the same time.
It may be useful to think of your hand being a straight extension of arm like you were about to do a judo chop. Try to hold this straightness when learning to play a tone.
The sound you are looking for is powerful and solid, a "thud".
Famoudou advocates keeping the fingers together (especially the first 3 fingers) to get the fullest tone.
Experienced players do not need to close their fingers. On Mamady Keita's Mogobalu DVD, he clearly demonstrates a tone with his fingers open.
I suspect that less strength is necessary to keep the fingers solid and straight when they are kept together.
As you get stronger, it is possible to a clear tone with them seperated.
The slap is generally the most difficult note for beginners to successfully achieve.
The hand and arm are relaxed and hit the drum in a slap like emotion. The hand is in pretty much the same position as a tone. The very edge of the padded part of your hand just below (toward your wrist) where your fingers join your hand should hit the rim of the drum.
If you put your hand on the edge of the drum in a rigid tone like motion and then relax your hand, you will notice that the fingers tend to turn in slightly towards the other hand.
As a result the slap can give the appearance being in a different position to a tone. The tone and slap are played in the exact same position!
When you hit the rim with the padded part of your hand (below where the fingers join the hand indicated in blue).
The fingers naturally spread out slight when they hit the edge of the drum. In the photo they are slight exaggerated.
The fingers should curl naturally and only the tips of the fingers should hit the drum.
The image on the left is an exagaration on a table to give you an idea. The curl is natural and are result of the whipping slap like motion. Take care not to try and form this shape rigidly or you will probably hurt yourself.
In the above image with my hand on the table I have come in a bit too far with the padded part of my hand. This image only demonstrates how to hit the skin with your only finger tips.
Your fingers should naturally bounce of the skin and we help them along by slightly lifting our hand from the drum immediately after they hit the skin.
There are many different techniques for slaps taught. This is the one that I was taught to be correct, but it is at least the 3rd different technique that I have learnt.
All of the different techniques produce a slightly different sounds, I'm not too unhappy about this. I believe that this may stem from different techniques for other drums (such as bougarabou and conga) or perhaps teachers looking for fast results.
It's important to try and keep the position of the tone and slap as close together as possible. This allows you to move easily and between the 2 at speed.
A clear distinction between tones and slaps is unbelievably important. It is extremely worthwhile spending time working on your basic sound techniques.
Mamady Keita has said never stop trying to develop your sounds.
You will develop your technique faster by starting slower and aiming for sound quality.
The faster you are playing the more there is a tendency for the distinctiveness of the notes to reduce, so do speed up but only if you can keep top quality notes.
It is also extremely important that you pay particular attention to your posture. Your body should be upright like you spin is balancing broom stick.
Your arms should hand naturally down at your sides all movement should be from your elbows.
Sore thumbs - You may be play too far to the centre of the drum. There is also and element of your hand learning to keep the thumb out to the way.
Playing with your hands too parallel instead of pointing somewhat inwards. This causes:
Hitting harder to make slaps - There is slightly more speed in a slap, but only because of your wrist whipping on the way down.
You do not hit the drum harder for get a slap. The amount of force you use should be the same and the whipping occurs naturally.
Here are some simple, yet fantastic exercises for developing your tones and slaps on djembe.
I am a student, not a teacher or authority, and as such this is a guideline only. The main idea of this community is to facilitate discussion so if anybody would like to add to this or disagrees with anything, lets discuss it here
Learn some music terminology you'll need.
More djembe exercises to develop your co-ordination, technique and sounds.
Djembe solo ideas - A concept