At some point in history a group of Mande people left the area between North Guinea and Bamako in Mali and headed towards the Senegambia region, and became the Mandinka people.
In Senegambia the Mandinka dance to a 3 drum ensemble of three drums, the kutirindingo, kutiriba and sabaro. These are very similar in appearance and playing style to the Wolof people who live in the same area.
The Maninka dancing of Mali and Guinea is accompanied with music by djembes and 1 - 3 dunduns.
The division between these 2 styles of centres around the crossroads town of Tambacounda in Senegal. To the west of Tambacounda the Mandinka ensemble is prominant, to the east the Maninka ensemble is used.
The djembe was brought on tour in the early 1950s by Guinean Fodeba Keita, founder of Les Ballet Africains. A lead drummer from Les Ballet Africains, Ladji Camara relocated to the United States in the early 1960's and there was immediately a great interest in this type of music.
There has also been a massive surge since the late 1980's when Seckou Toure (then president of Guinea) died. Former ballet troupes of Guinea, as well as Mali and Senegal began to settle in western countries to teach and perform.
Some dancing is viewed as play (tulon) or entertainment (nyenaje). Other occassions for djembe drumming and dancing are very serious. With a few exceptions drums are the instruments of choice for dancing.
Traditionally djembe rhythms and their corresponding dances would have been associated with specific occassions, with each rhythm having a time and place. These days rhythms and dances may be performed at a wider range of events.
Djembe drumming is a communal event that demands participation from everybody there is the form or clapping, singing and dancing. By participating you honour the people being celebrated.
The most common occassions for drum and dance events of the Mande people surround two major lifecycle events: circumcision/excision ceremonies and marriages.
Many masks have own dances and associated rhythms, such as Konden.
Here we can see the Konden mask in a village setting. The mask dances specific steps to a specific djembe / dundun rhythm.
There are certain rhythms that are associated with Agriculture (eg Konkoba), Ciwara with tilling the field and Kassa with clearing the field.
Here's an example of the ryhythm Konkoba being played after the workers and drummers had just returned to the village after a "Sila Kassa", which is a festival to clean the roads between 2 villages.
Old drumming traditions have been affected by Islam and European colonialism. Leading to certain secret power societies being broken up.
The different Mande intruments were usually played by people from different walks of life.
It is unusual for Jelis to play drums though the Xasonka dundun (also called Jeli dundun), is used to praise people. Jelis may also play the tama which is often used to announce guests and to escort the bride and groom at marriage celebrations.
Djembe drumming has no hereditary restictions on who may play it. The djembe is associated with the numu (blacksmiths) and many djembe players bear numu familiy names like Camara, Kante, and Doumbia. Playing djembe carries a certain stigma among horon (freeborn, nonartisanal) families.
There are hundreds of drums throughout West Africa but the djembe is one of few that is played with both bare hands.
Of all the drums played with the hands it has it's skin pulled tightest and can produce the widest range of notes from deep thundering basses to cracking slaps.
Sources: Mande Music - Eric Charry - ISBN - 0-226-10162-2
Mande (Maninka and Mandinka) drumming - Some history and cultural background.
West African Dancing - Some general information.
What is a Jeli (or griot)?
Glossary - Terms related to west african music and culture that you may encounter on this site and beyond.
Microtiming - as Formal Model and Performance Practice
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