Discuss traditional rhythms, singing etc
User avatar
By djembefeeling
#35886
Hi folks,

I've been teaching Yankadi recently and learned that it is very popular with beginners and audiences not well versed in African drumming. Doing workshops for corporations, Yankadi is always a catch.

But now that I just started teaching it to some students doing more intense training in African rhythm I was asked which of the many composite dundun melodies is the original. I guessed that, since Yankadi is supposed to be a Susu rhythm, it wasn't originally played on three dunduns and with the adaption to the Hamana ensemble came the many variations. However, I suddenly noticed how little I do know about this rhythms that wasn't taught to me by someone, but that I learned mainly from the book of Sylvia Franke and Ibro Konate, instead. I put together some of the stuff I found somewhere and mixed it up with my own ideas to a working arrangement that I like and works really well for beginners (with a shortened version of FKs intro for Kadan, here without the dunduns):
(1.26 MiB) Downloaded 658 times
I also have other versions for intermediate (with a shortened version of my own intro and in percussion studio sound only):
(413.62 KiB) Downloaded 430 times
and advanced:
(1.49 MiB) Downloaded 505 times
(Interesting to note for me that the older the versions, the more advanced they are. I tend to put things much easier the more I teach)
All this is enough for the usual teaching purposes, of course, but not enough when you have to address any deeper questions about the rhythm.

So I set out to learn something more about Yankadi from every possible source: I listened to every CD with a Yankadi track on it that I have, I listened to all the percussion studio files that I assembled over the years, looked at all written material I collected and could find on the internet and, of course, in the rhythm of the month (RTM-) thread of this forum.

The main source for what's out there about Yankadi seems to be Mamady Keita (MK). There is a website for balaphone, which is nicely done and puts the information about Yankadi in a chronological order:

http://www.mandebala.net/references/yankadi.php

Yankadi is supposed to be a Susu rhythm, always put together with Macrou, danced by the young people, with boys and girls seperated in different rows facing each other, a dance of seduction etc.
And it's feel is supposed to be in between binary and ternary.

I was a bit sceptical about all the information. For one, i did hear or read somewhere else that Yankadi is a dance for the elders, which would fit with the slow rhythms I know from Mali which are played for older folks. That is the opposite of the above information. Another thing that troubled me was the binary thing. In percussion studio, you can find some very square and binary versions of Yankadi which sound odd. And MKs notation is also binary. My initial contact with Yankadi, though, was with the version the Konates teach, which is, musically, another source for Yankadi. And that version is straight 12/8. But finally, I did learn that MK made up some things before and it's always good to double check.

On my journey trying to understand the rhythm, I had quite some findings which I want to share. I try to tell it in the order of my thought-processes, which makes it to something like a detective story. I guess some of you will consider it to be a fairy tale only, but we'll see...

Due to the limitation of uploads to one post and the lenght of the subject, I do have to do this in a couple of successive posts.
Last edited by djembefeeling on Sat Mar 14, 2015 4:25 pm, edited 1 time in total.
User avatar
By djembefeeling
#35887
The name of the rhythm is not a Susu name, but a Malinke one. That is not that unusual as you can see for the Baga rhythm Kakilambe, which is a Susu name for the Baga rhythm. Usually, traditional rhythms are deeply embedded within a context and hardly regarded as individual rhythms. The need to label a rhythm with a name only comes when it is put out of that context, e.g. when another ethnicity/culture likes that rhythm and wants to use it in a different context. Still, it makes me wonder if bubudis claim that
some sierra leonean sources attribute the yankadi to the mandinga (maninka) people, rather than the susu
has some truth to it. I've also heard rumors that yankadi was originally a full moon dance of the Fulani people in Guinea. Success and popularity have many fathers, I guess.

Anyway, for the Malinke denotation of the rhythm bubudi gives:
'yankadi' means 'things are sweet here' in maninka
According to Lynne Jessup (1983. The Mandinka Balafon: An Introduction with Notation for Teaching. La Mesa, Calif.: Xylo.) it translates into Here is a nice place.

Both translations are not completely the same, but together they point to a shared meaning. Looking things up in Friedländers textbook, we can find Yan means here while ka is a functional morpheme, verbalizing adjectives. The adjective in question is di , meaning palatable and pleasant/comfortable, which can also stretch to "sweet" as in didadi, the sweet saliva.
Together, then, Yan ka di sums up to something like (it) is pleasant here or just the above Here is a nice place.

Now, what is the occasion for the rhythm? As described above, it is supposed to be a seductive dance rhythm for young lovers/folks, always put together with Macrou. That is what almost unanimously all sources state. But it could be that all those sources draw from the same original source, which wouldn't be that convincing in the end. Indeed, almost all sources seem to put MKs information in their own words.
But there is one alternative early source. M’Bemba Bangoura, in the booklet to his 1996 CD Wali, states that Yankadi is
danced mainly in lower Guinea, Yankadi is (a) ceremonial rhythm danced in earlier times by adults. Its more recent version, Rounba, is a popular rhythm widely played at the social gathering of young people.
.
As a ceremonial rhythm, I suspect it is rather ternary than binary. I learned from Eugene Novotny (The 3:2 Relationship as the Foundation of Timelines in West African Music. DMA Dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign 1998) that the Anlo-Ewe consider 12/8 rhythms to be more serious and thus suitable for ceremonial occasions. I know this is by far not a sufficient reason for my assumption, just a hint.

M’Bemba Bangouras reasoning is in line with what I did learn about such things. As with Kpanlogo in Ghana: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_YEPyGO0ZPM
many ceremonial and religiously significant rhythms have been secularized in the worldwide wake of pop culture after the second world war. In Africa, the youth turned many rhythms formerly strictly bound to adult insiders of the religious ceremonies into popular rhythms for fun events with occasions for flirtation. Then, Yankadi would have been a ceremonial rhythm popularized probably in the early 1950s-early 1960s, perhaps turning from a rather slow 12/8 rhythm for adults into a faster and rather binary version for the youth.

That Yankadi today is a dance of seduction for the youth is actually out of the question. Moustapha Bangoura affirms that, in his youth in Conakry, he danced the Yankadi to all possible occasions of joy. According to him, it stems from southwest Guinea and northwest SierraLeone and is now popular and danced by the Susu, Mande, and Temne in Forécariah, Dubréka, Coyah, Kindia, Boffa, Boké, and Conakry.

It is interesting to note that M’Bemba Bangoura says that its more recent version is Rounba, another name for Macrou. That, again, contradicts MKs description of Yankadi being played always together with Macrou. What can we do with this information, how can we settle both claims? Is it now that they play the old ceremonial rhythm and the popularized versions together, perhaps because the old ceremony lost its followers and meaning so that both versions can be used without breaking a taboo? Have some patience - we will come to solve this puzzle much later...
Last edited by djembefeeling on Sat Mar 21, 2015 7:48 am, edited 4 times in total.
User avatar
By djembefeeling
#35892
Let's turn to the music for more clues and - in the end it's the music we are interested in.

The Susu do not originally play their rhythms on djembes nor on the 3 dunduns bound to the Hamana region. Brian (Bkidd) reported about the cultural background from a ws with MK:
Yankadi was originally played on metal drums that were skinned on one side. According to Mamady, there were no dununs in the traditional ensemble of instruments. Four of these metal drums were played, a low drum goes with the soloist and mark the dance, a middle drum to play what Mamady refers to as the second accompaniment, and the high drum that plays the first accompaniment.
With transfer always comes change. So it's no wonder why there are so many different versions of accompaniements and dunduns. Let's start with collecting the dundun versions.

1. MK teaches (c=muffled, x=a bell attack)

Kensedeni
1...2...3...4...
c.KK.xx.c.K.K.x.


Sangban
1...2...3...4...
c.xx.SS.c.xx.SS.


Dundun
1...2...3...4...
DxxDDxxDDxxDDxxD


In it's composite melody, respectively ballet dunduns (which I do notate contrastingly rather ternary in order to compare it easier with the other versions), it is

Dundunset
1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
D..K.K..SS.DD..K..K.SS.D



2. The Konate version goes like this:

Kensedeni
1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
K.xx.xK.xx.xK.xx.xK.xx.x


Sangban 1
1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
c.xS.Sx.cx.xc.xS.xc.xx.x


Sangban 2
1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
x.xS.Sx.xc.xx.xS.Sx.xc.x


Dundun
1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
D.xx.DD.xx.DD.xx.DD.xx.D


The composite/ballet line is:

Dundunset
1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
D..D.D..SS..K..K.K..SS.D


You can also hear that one on Billy Konaté new CD Respect, where its bound together with Tiriba, which does make sense since the Dundun is close to that in Macrou.


3. My favorite this far is a version of Yankadi I found in a percussion studio file:

Kensedeni
1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
c.xx.xK.Kx.xc.xK.xK.xx.x


Sangban
1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
c.xS.Sx.xx.xx.xx.xx.(s)S.x


Dundun
1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
D.xx.DD.xx.DD.xx.DD.xx.D


The composite/ballet line is:

Dundunset
1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
D..S.SK.K..DD..K..K.SS.D



4. Then, there is the ballet style Yankadi from Boka Camaras CD Allah Nana, which is almost like the above or like the MK version with Kensedeni and Sangban changing places and a variation on the second measure becoming standard. It is nice to listen to Boka playing with that and using it for his breaks, by the way:

Dundunset
1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
D..S.S..KK....D.S.D.S..D



5. On Youssouf Koumbassas
DVD Wongai, Vol.1, there is no Sangban involved, but the Kensedeni combines its own voice with the Sangbans by moving the muffled sound from the first to the sixth pulse, while the Dundun plays a variation to the simple form of MK:

Kensedeni
1...2...3...4...
x.KK.cx.x.K.K.c.


Dundun
1...2...3...4...1...2...3...4...
D.xx.x.xx.x.xx.xx.xx.x.DD.D.DD.D



6. while on Moustapha Bangouras DVD Tinkanyi, Vol 1, he has the Yankadi play much alike Koumbassas version in the Dundun:

Kensedeni
1...2...3...4...
x.KK.xx.x.KK.xx.


Sangban
1...2...3...4...
x.xx.SS.x.xx.SS.


Dundun
1...2...3...4...1...2...3...4...
D.xx.x.DD.D.DD.DD.xx.x.DD.D.DD.D


This is not my favorite Yankadi version, by the way, but I play this sometimes without any swing as a straight binary rhythm and it sounds great! So much fun to vary on the Dundun there! I call that straight binary version just Yankafoli and lots of people like the groove. Here is an arrangement in percussion studio:
(529.45 KiB) Downloaded 241 times
7. Another version I like very much is that of Epizo Bangoura. In his DVD Djembe Instruction Vol. 2 he has the Kensedeni play:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
c.xx.xx.KK.xc..x.x.KK.x


and the Dundun and Sangban superimposed on it play a four-measure cycle that in its first half reminds much on Boka Camaras version:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
D.xS.Sx.xx.xx.xDS.D.Dx.DD.DS.Sx.xx.xD.xS.xD.xx.D


composite ballet style it could be played like this:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
D..S.S..KK.....DS.D.D..DD.DS.S..KK..D..S..D.KK.D



8. The last version of Yankadi I want to mention is one I saw in a youtube video some years ago, but cannot find anymore. It seems to be identical with this one (little k=muffled), though:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SvCOEy1AbXY#t=87

Dundunset
1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
D..SK.K.K...k..SK.K.K..D


Here, you can listen to my favorite list of composite melodies in the order of No.s 3, 2, 1, 4, 7, and 8:
(394.03 KiB) Downloaded 292 times
This is, by far, not a complete list of all the versions out there. But this should suffice for now. I was led to think that since the Dundun is the most common in all this, while Sangban and Kensedeni change a lot in the different versions, the Dundun marking beat 1 and perhaps beat 3 is the essential feature of Yankadi.
Another common structural denominator seems to be that in the first measure, we typically find two attack points on the second beat and the subpulse before the third beat, while in the second measure we find it displaced to the third beat and the subpulse before the fourth.

It is often argued that, Yankadi being ternary or binary or something in between, it is important that in a ternary version the second subpulse has to be left out in order for the rhythm to be understood as a swung binary rhythm. However, you might want to notice that some dundunlines of Yankadi in both No. 7 and 8 do have an percussive attack on the pulse after a second beat. We will see the same feature in the most often used signal for Yankadi.

Admittedly, this part of the detective's work is a bit boring and never seen on TV, but makes up more then 90% of the time in a quest like this. It's getting more interesting with the djembe, finally. But this has to wait, since this work is tiresome...
Last edited by djembefeeling on Mon Mar 16, 2015 12:56 pm, edited 3 times in total.
User avatar
By djembefeeling
#35900
As for the djembe, let's start (as we usually do) with the signal. Coming from the ternary feel and understanding of Yankadi, I hardly ever used MKs obvious binary signal and always found it awkwardly hard swung (T=tone flam):

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
T..t.t..t..tt..s.ss.....


I like this one much better and found it to be more often used than MKs outside the TTM community:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
t.ts.tt.st.ts.bssss.ss..


Ibro Konaté has it slightly different, as you can see in Sylvia Frankes and Ibro Konatés book (which I highly recommend, since overall IMO it is still the best djembe instruction out there for starters and can give you advice for a long time on your way) with tones in the end - and the subpulse after the second beat is drawn to the second beat, like it is done in the 12/8 family with the SLL feeling:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
t.ts.tt.st.ts..tttt.tt..


If you listen to Ibro soloing on Yankadi, you can hear the same kind of ternary swing. He does not treat Yankadi that much different than, say, Soli, when it comes to the solo. Listening to it, I am tempted to play the signal for that family:

1..2..3..4..
T.tt.tt.tt..


and I really heard that used. But usually it is the above signal that is played, with many variations. The first measure up to the first beat of the second is generally constant, but the rest is flexible. You just have to span the space from the second to the fourth beat. MK plays the variant (note the subpulse after the third beat ;) ) :

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
t.ts.tt.st.ts..s.bssss..


Epizo Bangoura plays (Ss=roll):

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
t.ts.tt.st.ts.bSsss.tt..


Mohamed Bangoura plays two rolls:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
t.ts.tt.st.ts.bSssSsss..


Billy Konaté on the track of his CD Respect plays:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
t.ts.tt.st.ts..Sssttss..


I did also hear calls like that which are played to impress from the beginning:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
t.ts.tt.st.ts.bsbbsbbs..


I know this notation is not easy to read, so listen to this sound sample for the signals mentioned so far:
(160.96 KiB) Downloaded 199 times
M'Bemba Bangoura has his version begin with the dunduns and thus has a belated signal with some foreplay. Much like Ibro Konaté, he plays subpulses directly after the beat and draws them towards the preceding beat, creating the feel of the SLL family:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
tts.sss.sss.sss.sss.sss.ttt.tss.sss.s.s.s.s.s.s.s..Ttttsttstts.Ssssssss.


Something else really interesting is that he doesn't play the ttsttstts in the hard swing version anymore, where the second pulse is mostly completely left as a pause. Curiously, he starts the condensed pattern where usually only the response would start. Played this way, it starts to feel familiar in a different way.

In fact, teaching some typical alternatives to the same same binary signal:

1...2...3...4...
T.tt.t.tt.t.t...


one of the most common alternatives is:

1...2...3...4...
ttsttstts.Sssss.


When you play that with swing and slow, you have the supposedly more ternary signal of Yankadi!
And looking through the different versions of this signal in Yankadi above, you can find most of the usual variations played in the binary signal, too (MKs version I never heard played, though).

It is just like a call-and-response structure. While you can ask and answer in the solo at many places and in many different ways, I'd say that the typical space for the call in 4/4 spans from the first beat to the third (1st-9th subpulse of a measure), while the typical space for the answer spans from the offbeat of the third beat to the offbeat of the fourth (subpulses 11-15). The answer in this one is often varied and you can use all of the above in the binary scheme (sometimes in triplet form):

1...2...3...4...
ttsttsttsbSssss.
ttsttstts.Ttttt.
ttsttsttsbSsStt.
ttsttsttsbSsSss.
ttsttstts.SSTss.
ttsttsttsbsBsBs.

(126.06 KiB) Downloaded 197 times
So in the end, pretty much all signals in Yankadi are well known from the 4/4 rhythms. That is again an argument for the binary side of Yankadi.

To add a little confusion, I want to mention one deviation from the rule in Boka Camaras version of Yankadi. He uses a 9-subpulse displacement which is typical for the other 12/8 family with the LSM swing, especially for Soko, and has the dunduns answer in a more abstract form of such a 9-subpulse displacement:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
SsssttsttSssttssttSsss..D.S..D.S.D.S..D.S.KKKK..


I don't know who came up with this idea first, but for the solo it is a widely used pattern on Yankadi now. Mohamed Bangoura on his CD Tamani plays the answer lick very similar on the Yankadi (track N°5) at min 0:58, on Famoudou Konatés CD Hamana Kundö (track 11), a very beautiful version BTW, you can hear the answer lick at 3:19 - could be a hommage to Boka, since he was held in high esteem with the Konatés and other master drummers.

EDIT: Just noticed that MK is soloing many variations of the answer lick on his Yankadi of his CD Nankama. And once the complete pattern appeared on my radar, I can find it everywhere. Lamine "Dibo" Camara with Fote Fore plays it on Tiriba as well as on Guinee Fare, Alpha Oularé with Sugé plays it on Yankadi etc. It seems to be part of shared vocabulary in djembe drumming, especially on Yankadi.
Last edited by djembefeeling on Fri Apr 03, 2015 12:28 pm, edited 7 times in total.
User avatar
By djembefeeling
#35906
Looking at the accompaniments, things started to get more interesting.

I usually play this as the first accompaniment ($=muffled slap):

1..2..3..4..
b..$.bb.tt.b


This comes also without the muffled slap or as an alternation of both versions:

1..2..3..4..
b....bb.tt.b


1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
b..$.bb.tt.bb....bb.tt.b


As the second accompaniment, I play this:

1..2..3..4..
s.st.ts.s..b


I noticed that this is again also used in binary rhythms:

1...2...3...4...
ssttss.bssttss.b


but this in itself is not that unusual, since you can find many ternary patterns in binary form and vice versa, for example the binary first accomp.: s..ss.tt is in ternary form e.g. in Soko: s.sstt
it's just that it is yet another incident in Yankadi, and my formerly ternary Konate-Yankadi started to not be that different from MKs any more.

MK gives two different accompaniments (I transcribe into the ternary form for better comparison):

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
b..s.sb.tt..b..s..b.tt..


1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
$..t.t.......T..T..s.s..


this second accompaniment comes in may variations. Mostly, you can find some pick-up basses for the first half:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
$.bt.t.....T..T..s.s...b


sometimes, people play an additional muffled slap:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
$.bt.t..$..T..T..s.s...b


or, I think, more to the Konate side is this version:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
$..t.t..$...$..t..$.....


then I came along this one percussion studio version of a binary Yankadi:
Yankadi binary pcc.jpg
Yankadi binary pcc.jpg (188.74 KiB) Viewed 6361 times
(291.29 KiB) Downloaded 206 times
First I thought that it is strange that the Cascara, a very important rhythmical structure in the binary rhythms, where the usual call:T.tt.t.tt.t.t(t)... is derived from and which is often used as a transitional solo pattern, is used here as an accompaniment, but then I realized that this is just the complete form or matrix of MKs second accompaniment!:

1...2...3...4...
$.tt....t.t.ss.b=
$.tt.$.bt.t.ss.b


This really triggered my curiosity. Could it be that there is always something to be found when I stirr it up? Listening more attentive to the above pcc file and at a much higher tempo, I thought the first accompaniment is again familiar in a remote way and - heureka! - it is just a denser form of the first Macrou accompaniment:

1...2...3...4...
b.ssbtt.b.s.btt.=
b..s.tt.b.s..tt.

(111.09 KiB) Downloaded 183 times
When you play patterns faster, you usually drop some notes so that you can still hold the fast pattern for some time. Just as the second accomp. of MK is a thin form of the Cascara, the first is a dense form of the first Macrou accomp.!

BTW: the accompaniment for the ternary rhythm Liberté is also related to the above acc.:

1..2..3..4..
b.sbttbs.btt
User avatar
By djembefeeling
#35907
Things started to become really interesting. For Macrou, I used to play another accompaniment instead the above (which is MKs 3rd acc.):

1...2...3...4...
bt.tb.s.b.t.b.s.


could that be found in Yankadi, perhaps in a more dense form, too? I didn't know of any, but then I came across another percussion studio file under the heading "yankadi+solo.onno", again in square binary form, but with this interesting accompaniment:
Yankadi.onno.acc..jpg
Yankadi.onno.acc..jpg (210.3 KiB) Viewed 6350 times
(192.8 KiB) Downloaded 184 times
Here it was, the other accompaniment of Macrou in Yankadi. It works! Just look for conformities and you will find them. What about the other accompaniments for Yankadi then? MKs second is, as we have seen, basically a thined out form of the Cascara(=x). So is his second accompaniment for Macrou:

1...2...3...4...
t..s...tt.s.s..t=
x.xx.x.xx.x.xx.x


My favorite first accompaniment for Yankadi and MKs are related. Both do articulate forms of the composite melody of the dunduns and thus have the musical function of supporting the dundun melody:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
b..$.bb.oo.bb..$.bb.oo.b
b..s.sb.oo..b..s..b.tt.


and in this rather indirect form is my favorite first acc. for Yankadi related to the first acc. of Macrou.

So, if this works so well for the accompaniments, could it work for the dunduns likewise?

If you just look at the composite melody of the kensedeni-sangban in Yankadi, it is already very similar to that of Macrou, there only with the roles of kensedeni and dundun switched. Listen to an up-tempo track of Yankadi to just this melody, in the second half of the track are the first attack points of every pairs of attacks droped as you might want in fast speed playing:
(115.57 KiB) Downloaded 176 times
Last edited by djembefeeling on Fri Mar 20, 2015 5:58 am, edited 1 time in total.
User avatar
By djembefeeling
#35908
Here, it is somewhat more sophisticated. I speed up Yankadi and, in 5 steps, I gradually take out the swing and the first points of attack in pairs of attack:
(643.47 KiB) Downloaded 193 times
If you want this in percussion studio with 3 different accompaniments, I did create a pcc.file with a gradual transformation of Yankadi into Macrou which I did upload on the percussion studio website and which you can download if you just click "rhythms" on the site:

http://www.moosware.net/PercussionStudio/

Then, it becomes clear that Yankadi and Macrou is one and the same rhythm, played with different swing at different tempos, where - being played faster, the dundun takes over from the kensedeni for the greater musical effect. And thus we can understand M'Bemba Bangoura much better when he states that
Yankadi is ceremonial rhythm danced in earlier times by adults. Its more recent version, Rounba, is a popular rhythm widely played at the social gathering of young people.
It might have had, as this old ceremonial rhythm, a ternary feel leaned towards a SLL swing, as it is played solo on by diffferent djemfolas.

Some open questions remain. Why is the Macrou also called "Rounba" or Rhumba as on M'Bemba Bangouras CD? It certainly has nothing to do with the rumba clave:

1...2...3...4...
x..x...x..x.x...


, since Macrou works with the son clave:

1...2...3...4...
x..x..x...x.x...


Does anybody know?
Last edited by djembefeeling on Sat Mar 21, 2015 7:58 am, edited 1 time in total.
By davidognomo
#35910
To add a little confusion, I want to mention one deviation from the rule in Boka Camaras version of Yankadi. He uses a 9-subpulse displacement which is typical for the other 12/8 family with the LSM swing, especially for Soko, and has the dunduns answer in a more abstract form of such a 9-subpulse displacement:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
SsssttsttSssttssttSsss..D.S..D.S.D.S..D.S.KKKK..


hi, Jurgen. It's been a while since I last visited the forum. I was looking around the recent posts and opened this one, since Yankadi is a rhythm I've been playing a lot lately in dance classes and also in a percussion/music and dance group I'm in.

The dundun response in this case above is the typical gine fare one. There are some discussions here on the forum about it where i read that yankadi-macru is also by some considered gine fare (maybe in the yokui discussion in the Rhythm of the month thread).
Sometimes in dance classes I use the yokui djembe accomp for Yankadi, because I find it to fit very well into it, and it's more melodic, so to speak. But I do it without telling anyone, hoping that the senior guys that play with me won't tell me not to. (editted to add=notice on 00:53 on the 5th video you posted on yankadi that he's teaching the yokui accomp for yankadi; the next one being probably another version of the yokui accomp. I was talking about) Yankadi is not among my favourite rhythms and I'm outside the fascination that people nurture towards it.

as for the call, I really don't know where it comes from - probably a Conacry creation/adaptation - but I would relate it to the soli family rather than the soko one. It's two soli family techniques one followed by the other, each one starting on tempo. If you have Fode Bangoura's Fakoly 1, you'll hear on the intro of track 1 the same phrase, but followed by another technique that Boka uses in his denadon in the Allah Nana album. The rhythm where Fode uses it in that track is wolosodon.

As for rumba, that's probably a match up made by the guys from the ballets that were in Cuba, I think. I know that Bangourake has a rhythm he teaches in his dvds that he calls rumba-macru.

here's a thread with a video with Lamine Lopez Soumah with Bangouraké and Sibo. As you can see, Dugafola and Michi are having a discussion on wether it is makru or Djole, and Bubudi clears things out at the end. Notice that at a given point, when Lopez is doing solo, he starts doing a typical kuku technique, and Sibo starts using it as accompaniment.

cheers
Last edited by davidognomo on Wed Mar 18, 2015 1:08 am, edited 1 time in total.
By neuroanimal
#35911
Firstly thank you for your hard work and sharing observations :)
I hope more people will appreciate your research!

I was feeling what you are saying already:
Yankadi and Macrou is one and the same rhythm
But I feel it too: what we can see as many rhythms are just variations of the same one rhythm.

Kassa-Sofa pattern "ttssbbss"? Not only... You have it even in DenabenDounoun from Gberedou (first rhythm on Bundiani fête).

Yankadi pattern "bbttbb--"? Could be. I heard it on goungouma, bolon, bala(fon), doundouns, djembé, and even on hang. And many different songs, one even composed by tribal for me :) All were swung from binary close to ternary...

But... ternary or binary or swung? For me technicaly/musicaly it's the same thing, just another usage. The same with tempo, accents, and microtiming. But culturally it can be different when is played for another occasion. And historically could be also different, as people have two hands and two legs - can invent the same solutions in similar situations or environments.

What with Macrou/Makuru? It's just a marche, like Maqsuum (DT-TD-T- = DTkTDkTk), Ashiko (DD-kD-k-|DkrkD-k-), some Bomba and Plena rhythms, and some general basic musical patterns.
Btw.: Ashiko could be related to Shiko, and Shiko to siko drums of Soussou, and to the Gumbay/Gumbe/Gumbi from the Caribbean, and the new long story beginns...

How can be Round/Rhumba related to the Son and Rumba? Just like that:
From the 1940s, Afro-Cuban son groups such as Septeto Habanero and Trio Matamoros had been played over Radio Congo Belge in Léopoldville (Kinshasa), and the Congo shared the widespread popularity of Cuban music during the late 1940s and 1950s. To Africans, Cuban popular music sounded familiar and Congolese bands started doing Cuban covers, singing the lyrics phonetically. Eventually they created original compositions with lyrics in French or Lingala, a "lingua franca" of the western Congo region. The Cuban horn guajeos were adapted to guitars. Congolese called this new music "rumba", though it was more based on "son". Antoine Kolosoy, also known as Papa Wendo, became the first star of African rumba, touring Europe and North America in the 1940s and 1950s with his regular band, Victoria Bakolo Miziki. By the 1950s, big bands had become the preferred format, using acoustic bass guitar, multiple electric guitars, conga drums, maracas, scraper, flute or clarinet, saxophones, and trumpet. Grand Kalle et l'African Jazz (also known as African Jazz) led by Joseph Kabasele Tshamala (Grand Kalle), and OK Jazz, later renamed TPOK Jazz (Tout Puissant Orchestre Kinshasa, meaning "all-powerful Kinshasa band") led by Franco became the leading bands. One of the musical innovations of Franco's band was the mi-solo (meaning "half solo") guitarist, playing arpeggio patterns and filling a role between the lead and rhythm guitars.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Rumba
By neuroanimal
#35912
Btw1. Drums siko/gumbe and thumb pianos kongoma/goungouma are played by Mandenyi, Temine, Kru, Aku, Krio people, also in Jollay/Djole/Yole. Read this thread.

Btw2. Ternary patterns of Clave de Son (6/8) = Clave de Rumba (6/8), and binary versions are just variants of them. Please also note some fundamental information, that xx-xx-x-|x-x-x-x- have also structure of the Clave de Son (4/4).

Btw3. Mouctar Touré and Gaspard Condé teaches also this accompaniment for Yankadi:
Code: Select all
|1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.|1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.|1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.|1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.|
|$...t.t....$....|$...t...$.......|$...t.t....$....|$...t...$.......| Mouctar
|$...t.t....$....|$...t...$.......|$...t.t....$....|b...SlapRoll....| Gaspard
User avatar
By djembefeeling
#35916
Hi guys,

thanks heaps for the encouragement and the additional info!

I will have to edit my posts, for I was completely exhausted doing this in English and in between my teachings and family life. Was even getting up at 4.30 a.m. sometimes to find the time doing it. In the end, I did rush to the conclusion only to make my point. But I didn't work it out as much as I should have. Will add more info in the next couple of weeks...
neuroanimal wrote:How can be Round/Rhumba related to the Son and Rumba? Just like that:

From the 1940s, Afro-Cuban son groups such as Septeto Habanero and Trio Matamoros had been played over Radio Congo Belge in Léopoldville (Kinshasa), and the Congo shared the widespread popularity of Cuban music during the late 1940s and 1950s. To Africans, Cuban popular music sounded familiar and Congolese bands started doing Cuban covers, singing the lyrics phonetically. Eventually they created original compositions with lyrics in French or Lingala, a "lingua franca" of the western Congo region. The Cuban horn guajeos were adapted to guitars. Congolese called this new music "rumba", though it was more based on "son".
that's great info! thanks! I did just read in David Penalosas "Clave Matrix" that they used to play the son clave on Rumba in Cuba. But I am still not sure if Runba could mean something in Susu...
neuroanimal wrote:Btw2. Ternary patterns of Clave de Son (6/8) = Clave de Rumba (6/8), and binary versions are just variants of them. Please also note some fundamental information, that xx-xx-x-|x-x-x-x- have also structure of the Clave de Son (4/4).
I know that already. That's why I said that Macrou is based on son, not rumba.
davidognomo wrote:The dundun response in this case above is the typical gine fare one. There are some discussions here on the forum about it where i read that yankadi-macru is also by some considered gine fare (maybe in the yokui discussion in the Rhythm of the month thread).
also thanks for this info! josh just told me it is from yoki. will see into this when I find some time. but it is not that relevant to the above discussion. the 9-subpulse shift is just very typical for Soko, and I will have to look for such a thing on the other 12/8 family in the future. the soloing of Boka on Yankadi is increadible and very much ballet style, but he is doing things also done more in the Dja family.
Last edited by djembefeeling on Fri Mar 20, 2015 11:14 am, edited 1 time in total.
By neuroanimal
#35919
What I can do for you quickly is providing a list of search results of Rhumba/Rumba/Roumba/Rounb played on djembé and dunduns.

Ousmana Seye "Roumba Solo's"
http://tuka-tuka.com/dataweb/zonnewende ... lo%27s.pdf

Rumba tought by MaryAmma
who visited at least Gambia and Guinea-Conakry
notations and audio of:

animations of: rumba, yankadi, djole, lolo
http://www.maryamma.nl/ritmes/ritmes_animatie.php

Practise CD from Lennart Hallstrom (Sweden)
African Drum Rhythms - Practice CD 8 - Djankadi / Rumba
notation and audio
http://www.djembe.net/cd8a.shtml
another notation and audio
http://www.djembe.net/share/Rumba.htm
http://www.djembe.net/npx.htm

Other search results:

http://www.african-essentials.com/produ ... tmes01.htm
Boek `Traditionele Djembéritmes 1` - A772
Djembéritmes die in het boek worden vermeld
  • Rumba I
  • Rumba II
  • Rumba III


http://www.trommelei.de/articles/100/niveaustufen
Trommelkurse
Nivo 1
  • Rumba (ohne Bässe) mit Break
  • Balakulania mit Echauffement Dunun
  • Makru (ohne Bässe, mit Break)
  • Kakilambé (mit Lied, Intro, Stop)


Search results from the board of the DjembeFola.com:

music-and-drumming-f5/santa-maria-t1244-15.html
the kid wrote:
someone asked Mamady keita about Rumba and he simply said its a rhythym from south america and that he didn't know a malinke rhythym by that name
Now i've learnt a rhythym from koto Bangoura called rumba(as bud said similar to djole and makru) and inside that rhythym was the SSSStt rhythym which he called 'Santa Maria'...
There is some info on Telephon on Abdoulaye 'Camera's Dance instructional dvd. I can't remember the specifics but it said that it was a recently created rhythym from another trad rhythym.

Onetreedrums wrote:
Fara Tolno (Guinea) taught us Santa Maria in our troupe, Kissidugu (http://www.kissidugu.org), a few years ago and we played it regularly in one of our core performances. We actually played three different versions of it in the context of a 45 minute show. Santa Maria is definitely a more contemporary djembe/dunun piece that was conceived when Percussion de Guinea traveled to Cuba. According to Fara, the drummers were inspired by and adapted Guanuanco to the djembe and dunun. The basic conga pattern was modified and placed on the dununs. Some versions of Santa Maria we played, the djembe accompaniment was also similar to the basic conga pattern, but sparser than the dunun version. You see Scott on the left playing the fuller djembe accompaniment (SSS Stt S S SStt ... you may have to use your eyes and ears to understand my attempt at quick notation) while I play "ga gada godo ga." Here is a video of us playing Santa Maria into Yankadi ...

music-and-drumming-f5/patterns-and-rhyt ... 44-15.html
johnc wrote:
was at an all day workshop today and had a snack with Mady Keita. He looked at the drum and said its definately a Mali made drum. I didnt even ask!
we were working on the Rumbah after some non traditional warm ups and a spontaneous after lunch jam.
Anybody know the notation of Djembe part 1 (?) of the rumbah. Ive got bbbtt but i forget what goes next. I thought bbtt...but it does not sound right....or maybe ive just missed the rhythm. Ive seen some notation elswhere but it does not begin with bbb and we definately began with that

bubudi wrote:
he's truly one of the best teachers for the mali style and definitely one of the best djembe players in australia. he's pure roots. i'm surprised he taught you rumba tho. that's not a malian rhythm. anyway, it's a good start. rumba is for the most part similar to the rhythm makru (also spelled 'macrou').

johnc wrote:
Mady didnt teach us the Rumba, simon fraser did. During the day Mady played duns and later we broke into groups. Mady took the advanced players and yes, they played Mali stuff.

media-f31/djembe-khui-alseny-solo-cherif-t2453.html
bubudi wrote:
Djembe Khui by Alseny Solo Cherif
8. medile sousou (10:42)
medile sousou is a rhythm of the lower coast of guinea, played by different ethnic groups
(Yankadi, Rumba, Makrou, Yolé)

media-f31/monette-marino-keita-coup-eclat-t1870.html
michi wrote:
Monette Marino Keita "Coup d'Eclat"
My favourite is "Rumba de la Guinée", which combines Soli Des Manian and Soboninkun into a really hot (percussion-only) arrangement.

music-and-drumming-f5/bao-t1922.html
bubudi wrote:
bao is on monette marino keita's cd, coup d'eclat, in the 'rumba de la guinee' track, with some ripping djembe work by mamady.

music-and-drumming-f5/what-your-favouri ... -t384.html
the kid wrote:
of what i can play it's rumba, cool funky dunduns sounds like electro beat with quick light djembe patterns and nice solo, is from same village as djole and macru and is very similar.

media-f31/segtaaba-meeting-salif-ouedraogo-t1653.html
e2c wrote:
"Disco de Guinée"?! ;)

bubudi wrote:
yes, i've actually learned disco. it's a cool modern rhythm from conakry. telephone is another good one.
then there's rumba, santa maria, foli, tani, '84, '86, gbassikolo, liberte 1 & 2, cebujen and many others.

social-f1/what-style-drumming-best-sums-you-t474.html
the kid wrote:
found koto bangoura in gambia and spent 5 weeks with him learning some traditional,guinean stylie,
great teacher, we covered 7 rhythyms with intermediate solo and accelerations, Yankadee, Soko, Rumba, Liberte, Lamba, dunumbe, Soli

music-and-drumming-f5/ancient-style-t780-15.html
e2c wrote:
I used to do a lot of music reviewing, and often had to struggle with my own notions of what was "authentic" and what wasn't. To give you an example of my own tastes, I'm inclined to like Congolese rumba/soukous from the 50s-early 70s. It seems "authentic" to me - and the new stuff (whatever it might be) tends to sound "phony," "too Western," (etc. etc. etc.) in many cases. But to the people who were 1st hearing the "authentic" styles back in the 50s and 60s - well, that material was just as potentially "shocking" as anything I'm hearing now. In 15-20 years, today's new music will be "authentic" and make a lot of people misty-eyed with nostalgia

free-lessons-this-site-f11/ballet-rhythms-t1292.html
the kid wrote:
Balakulandjan is nice and easy to play 'ballet' style. I've just really experimented with this and Rumba/Djole, and Bolokonondo(works better sideways with 3 bass drums and bell(basic).

djembefolaw-f36/lamine-lopez-soumah-t2321.html
bubudi wrote:
exerpt from the cd, percussions de guinee vol. 2
in the first video posted, they are playing 'rumba makru', that is, mostly makru, but with a bit of djole mixed in. standard conakry fare.

feb-2011-djaa-f58/resources-for-djaa-t2685.html
guedom wrote:
Ibro Konaté - Senkola; Percussions et chants Malinké de la Guinée #02

bubudi wrote:
this book and accompanying cds contain 8 rhythms: gumbe, rumba, djole, yankadi, balakulania, kuku, kadan, and soli. again, no djaa.

instrument-building-and-repair-f3/recyc ... -t611.html
johnc wrote:
The newly formed school west African drumming ensemble has its first gig at assembly on Monday moring. Rhythms from the rhumba, kuku and djole will be played. Just simpl stuff - call - djembe 1 by all - then call - then dejembe 2 - a call - a roll - a call - a flam finish. Ages from 7 to 10 years. The seven year old can hold a simple dun dun rhythm for awhile

social-f1/gunbe-official-maninka-spelling-t3968.html
bops wrote:
The gongoma is another example of an instrument that could have come from the Caribbean - there's a similar instrument in Jamaica that they call a rhumba box.

You may extract what is usefull for you from above web pages and from citations.
User avatar
By djembefeeling
#35925
Hi reasearchanimal,

thanks for all that - kept me busy for a while! ;)
neuroanimal wrote:Btw2. Ternary patterns of Clave de Son (6/8) = Clave de Rumba (6/8), and binary versions are just variants of them. Please also note some fundamental information, that xx-xx-x-|x-x-x-x- have also structure of the Clave de Son (4/4).
I kept thinking about that. It was interesting to read in Novontneys dissertation (p.237) that the 12/8 claves predate the binary versions. The latter mutated from their 12/8 original format in the late nineteenth century and were popularized in the 1920s. John Santos seems to be the guy to read if someone wants further information on that...

But after some meditation, I do not really agree on xx-xx-x-|x-x-x-x- having the structure of the Son clave. I mean, in a way it does, since there is a bell attack on every point of attack of the Son clave. But I tend to think of pairs of attack the first attack point mostly being just a pick up. So, in the second pair the bombo would just be a pick up. Further, in some other ways, this bell pattern doesn't capture important features of the clave. Reading David Penalosa on the Clave Matrix, I learned that the first cell of the clave is understood as being offbeat in nature (what I would call double-offbeat): .x.x|.x.x
It is somewhat important that the second beat is not played (of course with the exeption of an instrument like the kensedeni with the musical role of keeping the beats), but played around. You find the same structural features in most binary rhythms of the Malinke and in most of the ternary LSM family, too. That is why Macrou sounds so different to the usual Malinke music. The same feature makes it so much more popular to audiences here in the West with little to none experience in Westafrican music.

Having said that, I want to argue that this structure of the second beat being played (xx-xx-x-|x-x-x-x-) is accidental and not essential to Macrou also. When the first accompaniments musical role in both Yankadi and Macrou is to capture the composite melody of the dunduns and thus a sort of essence of the rhythm, then we find in Macrou that the second beat isn't: b..s|.tt.|b.s.|.tt.
(BTW: the sangban is doubled in this accompaniment, which is an atavism originating from its origin in Yankadi, I would argue). That we play Macrou with the d..d|d.s.|d.d.|d.s. is a result of the dundun both taking over the melodic attacks of the kensedeni and keeping to mark the beats. But reduced to its essence, I think we can drop the beat on the second count easily as is done in here:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kH0pZSkxyXo
davidognomo wrote:Sometimes in dance classes I use the yokui djembe accomp for Yankadi, because I find it to fit very well into it, and it's more melodic, so to speak. But I do it without telling anyone, hoping that the senior guys that play with me won't tell me not to. (editted to add=notice on 00:53 on the 5th video you posted on yankadi that he's teaching the yokui accomp for yankadi
Aha, that one: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n567NrePzLE
It is perhaps not bound to any particular rhythm, since I know they play basically the same one on Soungourounbani in Bamako: s.b|tt -- only there with a broad feeling of the pair on tones, of course, and not the tight feeling of this rhythmic family. Musically, it totally fits into Yankadi, where they love to play the subpulse after the second beat :D
Last edited by djembefeeling on Mon Mar 23, 2015 7:47 am, edited 4 times in total.
User avatar
By djembefeeling
#35929
I did try to reach a Susu drummer in Hamburg, but no chance. Now I looked up the Susu dictionary and couldn't find a Susu word "runba", "rounba", "rhumba", "roumba" or "rumba". Best guess is there is none...
So, both of your explanations seem to be reasonable:
neuroanimal wrote: the Congo shared the widespread popularity of Cuban music during the late 1940s and 1950s. To Africans, Cuban popular music sounded familiar and Congolese bands started doing Cuban covers, singing the lyrics phonetically. Eventually they created original compositions [...] Congolese called this new music "rumba", though it was more based on "son".
I don't know about musical ties between Guinea and the Congo, but it could have been popular back then in Guinea, too.
davidognomo wrote:As for rumba, that's probably a match up made by the guys from the ballets that were in Cuba, I think. I know that Bangourake has a rhythm he teaches in his dvds that he calls rumba-macru.
Also sounds reasonable. One of the three main forms of Rumba, the guaguancó (say: wah-wahn-ko), is a competitive partner dance with sexual symbolism borrowed from Bantu fertility dances, as Penalosa explicates in his glossary (p.255). That must have reminded any Guineans from Conakry pretty much on Macrou!

Did you notice how this Cuban rhythm is pronounced? wah-wahn-ko. Ring a bell? Siko laiko, right! We have MK singing the words of the same exact rhythm on Djole, which in turn is close to Macrou. In the booklet to MKs CD it is said that the lyrics are untranslatable, mixing nonsense words and words of different languages. Only Siko is given as the traditional drum Djole is played on. Now I at least understand the refrain part of the song.
So this rhythm is well known to the musicians of his generation and must have been very popular.

And it is not that far from the musical structure of Macrou as well, since both are (or rather used to be) structured by the son clave. The son probably acquired the son clave pattern from folkloric rumba when they migrated west to Havana. Today, it is rarely used on rumba anymore, but "in the first half of the twentieth century, what we now call son clave was the clave pattern used in havana-style yambú and guaguancó. Yambú and guaguancó are cuban partner dances that evolved from the older congolese erotic dances of yuka and makuta, both of which can use son clave." (Penalosa, p. 87/245)

For a modern performance of guaguancó see: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0GSQpWMOodM. you can also see men and women alternate in group and individual performance.

So, both ways of musical migration are possible, either the way from the Congo to Guinea or from Cuba to Guinea. My bet goes on Cuba, `cause MK sings guaguancó, not (the Congolese) makuta. Again so, either the Guinean musicians were reminded by guaguancó of Yankadi-Macrou, which then already was an erotic partner dance, or they transformed the ancient ceremonial form of Yankadi into Macrou/Rumba according to the model of guaguancó, which is my bet, for it is implausible that they give their own popular rhythm, which already has a name, a name from another culture so far away, but completely feasible that they turn a popular musical trend into something that is related to their own culture and thus turn a well known ceremonial dance into the fashion of the day.

Now, when the kid said that
someone asked Mamady Keita about Rumba and he simply said its a rhythym from south america and that he didn't know a malinke rhythym by that name.
that someone should have asked about guaguancó as a Susu rhythm, not for Rumba (as a Malinke rhythm), if my argumentation above is sound.
Further, I am not sure about MKs ignorance here, if it is real or posed. It could (my best guess) just be an expression of the national pride of a professional musician who used to represent the culture of his country for many decades and later rather his own ethnic group. His answer is correct, but can hide his knowledge about a rhythm called Macou/Rumba. First, it isn't a Malinke, but a Susu rhythm. Second, he would probably never substitute the Guinean name of the rhythm for a Latin American name.

I looked up "Macrou" or rather "Makuru" in many variants in the Susu dictionary and couldn't find any match. Perhaps it is also Malinke? In the Friedländer glossary to her textbook I couldn't find a direct match either, but we could synsthesize it from ma and kuru.
Kúru can mean group, society, association, union and the like, while kùru connotes with mountain, range. Since Yankadi-Makuru is about this erotic group dance, I go with the former.
Ma also comes in at least two different versions. As it is a preposition standing for lots of meanings, among them: in, on, to, from, through, against, for and the like. In group could be a possible meaning, but Makuru is supposed to be the part where the rows of boys and girls disintegrate and people dance individually. So my bet is on the upward accent, again, since is a morpheme of negation, so it does to the group exactly that: disintegrate.
Hence, I estimate má kúru is Màninka for not (in) group.

The name of the rhythm then is just an expression of it's musical function for the dance, where the slow, with erotic tension loaded group dance of Yankadi erupts in fast individual performances of Mákúru.
Last edited by djembefeeling on Mon Mar 23, 2015 7:54 am, edited 1 time in total.
User avatar
By djembefeeling
#35934
With the accompaniments, my discussion of Yankadi turned into a comparison with Mákúru up to the final conclusion that those are basically two ends of one and the same rhythm. So let me catch up on the accompaniment parts of Yankadi.
neuroanimal wrote:Mouctar Touré and Gaspard Condé teaches also this accompaniment for Yankadi:

Code: Select all
|1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.|1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.|1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.|1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.|
|$...t.t....$....|$...t...$.......|$...t.t....$....|$...t...$.......| Mouctar
|$...t.t....$....|$...t...$.......|$...t.t....$....|b...SlapRoll....| Gaspard
This is, basically, put in a binary form what I suspected to be more to the Konaté side above. The second accompaniment is just a variation to the first and, in a more traditional context, rather unusual, for such a prominent role has a musical function that is commonly met by the solo djembe.

But in ballet style, which is more dense, this is not uncommon. Fara Tolno plays MKs second accompaniment two times and varies every third time:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
s..t.t......T..T..s.s...
s..t.t......T..T..s.s...
s..t.t.....btttttts.s...


while he has my first accompaniment answer that variation right ahead:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
b..s.bb.tt.bb..s.bb.tt.b
b..s.bb.tt.bb..s.bb.tt.b
b..s.bb.tt.bb..s.btttttb


that results in a six measure cycle where every sixth measure is sort of a dense signal:
ttt|ttt|ttt|tt. this sounds really nice and provides the soloist with a rather long regular arch of suspense.

Epizo Bangoura does almost the same with the above discussed (Konaté side or just a variant of MKs second?) accompaniment alone and varies it every other time:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
$..t.t......$..t..$.....
$..t.t.....btttttts.....


while he has an additional slap for the first measure of MKs first accompaniment:

1..2..3..4..
b..s.sb.tt.s


some interesting accompaniments can be heard and seen in binary notation here:

[video]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XJXI1UF8Fls[/video]

I like the first one, which is not a fragmentary, but mostly a denser form of the cascara. In 12/8 it notates as:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
s..t.t..s..bs.stt.s.s..b


In this video I already posted as a link above:

[video]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n567NrePzLE[/video]

there is, next to the one David likes to play:

1..2..3..4..
s..tt.s..tt.


this nice one that I like very much:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
s.b..ss.tt.ss....ss.tt.b


EDIT:
in my second repitition with Mohamed Sylla I learned two more accompaniments:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
s.st.ts.s..bttsttts.s..b


alternatively he plays:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
s.sttts.s..bttsttts.s..b

(264.71 KiB) Downloaded 169 times
the other acc. is:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
b.bb.b..tt..$.....$.tt.b

(537.52 KiB) Downloaded 168 times
but he made clear that he considers only b|b..|$.b|b.t|t. and b|s.s|t.t|s.s|.. to be real accompaniments, while all others are just solo accompaniments in his opinion.

Just found another pcc file called "variante yankadi" with an interesting accompaniment, interlocking nicely with MKs resonse t|t.t|..s|b.t|t..|b..|s..|b.t|t.t|:

1..2..3..4..1..2..3..4..
b.tt..b..s..bttt..b..s..
Last edited by djembefeeling on Fri Apr 17, 2015 2:42 am, edited 4 times in total.